Norwich city

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Der FC Norwich City wurde gegründet. Die Spieler handelten sich den Spitznamen „The Canaries“ ein, was teilweise auf die lange Tradition der. Oct 28, Norwich City DER (Championship) · Jan 02, Norwich City DER (Championship) · Mar 14, Norwich City DER (Championship). Norwich City. English League Cup winner 2. Squad size: Average age: 26,3. Foreigners: 20 87,0 %. Current internationals: 6. Stadium: Carrow Road The Whiffler mainly plays host to small Shakespeare productions. Out of the 35, domestic dwellings in Norwich, 2, were destroyed, and another 27, suffered some damage. Cathedral Shrines of Medieval England. Unusually in Norwich city, it divided the city and appears to have linked Protestantism with the plight of the urban poor. Johnson three clear as world number one Rose misses cut Golf. From the congregation of the New Jerusalem Church of Swedenborgiansfollowers of the mystic Emanuel Swedenborgworshipped at the church of St. L Lost 3 - 4 against Derby County on December 29th To the norwich city of the city centre is the Anglia Square shopping centre. As besten strategiespiele war ended, the city council revealed what it had been working on before the war. The Whiffler Theatre was built and was given to the people of Norwich by the local newspaper group Eastern Daily Press. Retrieved ruleta de casino gratis 888 March online casino+

Norwich City Video

HIGHLIGHTS: Norwich City 3-2 Bolton Wanderers

At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England. The Domesday Book states that it had approximately 25 churches and a population of between 5, and 10, It also records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the later Norman cathedral.

Norwich continued to be a major centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth , which served as the port for Norwich.

Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre. These date from the 11th century onwards.

Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest. The chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone, imported from Caen in Normandy.

To transport the building stone to the site, a canal was cut from the river from the site of present-day Pulls Ferry , all the way up to the east wall.

Herbert de Losinga then moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich. The Bishop of Norwich still signs himself Norvic.

Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in , and another one from Richard the Lionheart in Following a riot in the city in , Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope.

The first recorded presence of Jews in Norwich is Pilgrims made offerings to a shrine at the Cathedral largely finished by up to the 16th century, but the records suggest there were few of them.

In February , all the Jews of Norwich were massacred except for a few who found refuge in the castle. At the site of a medieval well, the bones of 17 individuals, including 11 children, were found in by workers preparing the ground for construction of a Norwich shopping centre.

The remains were determined by forensic scientists to be most probably the remains of such murdered Jews, and a DNA expert determined that the victims were all related, so that they most probably came from one Ashkenazi Jewish family.

In , Whitefriars was founded. In the city was sacked by the "Disinherited". It has the distinction of being the only English city ever to be excommunicated, following a riot between citizens and monks in In the Cathedral received final consecration.

In the city flooded. Austin Friary was founded in that year. The wealth generated by the wool trade throughout the Middle Ages financed the construction of many fine churches, so that Norwich still has more medieval churches than any other city in Western Europe north of the Alps.

Throughout this period Norwich established wide-ranging trading links with other parts of Europe, its markets stretching from Scandinavia to Spain and the city housing a Hanseatic warehouse.

To organise and control its exports to the Low Countries , Great Yarmouth , as the port for Norwich, was designated one of the staple ports under the terms of the Statute of the Staple.

From to the city walls were built. However, when the city walls were constructed it was made illegal to build outside them, inhibiting expansion of the city.

Around this time, the city was made a county corporate and became the seat of one of the most densely populated and prosperous counties of England.

Part of these walls remain standing today. Hand-in-hand with the wool industry, this key religious centre experienced a Reformation significantly different to other parts of England.

The magistracy in Tudor Norwich unusually found ways of managing religious discord whilst maintaining civic harmony.

The year saw an unprecedented rebellion in Norfolk. Unlike popular challenges elsewhere in the Tudor period, it appears to have been Protestant in nature.

Unusually in England, it divided the city and appears to have linked Protestantism with the plight of the urban poor.

Inhabitants of Ypres in particular chose Norwich above other destinations. Norwich has traditionally been the home of various minorities, notably French Huguenot and Belgian Walloon communities in the 16th and 17th centuries.

The great "Stranger" immigration of brought a substantial Flemish and Walloon community of Protestant weavers to Norwich, where they are said to have been made welcome.

It seems that the Strangers were integrated into the local community without much animosity, at least among the business fraternity, who had the most to gain from their skills.

Their arrival in Norwich boosted trade with mainland Europe and fostered a movement toward religious reform and radical politics in the city.

The Norwich Canary was first introduced into England by Flemings fleeing from Spanish persecution in the 16th century.

They brought with them not only advanced techniques in textile working but also pet canaries, which they began to breed locally, the little yellow bird eventually becoming, in the 20th century, a mascot of the city and the emblem of its football club, Norwich City F.

Printing was introduced to the city in by Anthony de Solempne, one of the "Strangers", but it did not take root and had died out by about However, to begin with, there had been a large element of Royalist sympathy within Norwich, which seems to have experienced a continuity of its two-sided political tradition throughout the period.

Bishop Matthew Wren was a forceful supporter of Charles I. Nonetheless, Parliamentary recruitment took hold. The strong Royalist party was stifled by a lack of commitment from the aldermen and isolation from Royalist-held regions.

According to Hopper , the explosion "ranks among the largest of the century". At the cost of some discomfort to the Mayor, the moderate Joseph Hall was targeted because of his position as Bishop of Norwich.

Norwich was marked in the period after the Restoration of and the ensuing century by a golden age of its cloth industry, comparable only to those in the West Country and Yorkshire.

Norwich was the wealthiest town in England, with a sophisticated system of poor relief , and a large influx of foreign refugees.

This made Norwich unique in England, although there were some 50 cities of similar size in Europe. Norwich in the late 17th century was riven politically.

Churchman Humphrey Prideaux described "two factions, Whig and Tory … and both contend for their way with the utmost violence.

The pre-eminent citizen, Bishop William Lloyd, would not take the oaths of allegiance to the new monarchs. Still, it was the end of the road for Norwich Jacobites, and the Whigs organised a notable celebration after the Battle of Culloden.

What the events of this period illustrate is that Norwich had had a strong tradition of popular protest favouring Church and Stuarts and attached to the street and alehouse.

Knights tells how in the mayoral election had ended in a riot, with both sides throwing "brick-ends and great paving stones" at each other.

By there were rival Whig and Tory presses and even in mid-century, three-quarters of the males in some parishes were literate.

Norwich alehouses had clubs and societies meeting in them in , and at least more were formed before The open and contestable structure of local government, the press, the clubs and societies, and dissent all ensured that politics overlapped with communities bound by economics, religion, ideology and print in a world in which public opinion could not be ignored.

Amid this metropolitan culture the city burghers had built a sophisticated political structure. Freemen, who had the right to trade and to vote at elections, numbered about 2, in , rising to over 3, by the mids.

With growth partly the result of political manipulation, their numbers did at one point reach one-third of the adult male population.

In Norwich, he says, a powerful Anglican establishment, symbolised by the Cathedral and the great church of St Peter Mancroft was matched by scarcely less powerful congeries of Dissenters headed by the wealthy literate body [of Unitarians] worshipping at the Octagon Chapel.

In the middle of political disorders of the late 18th century, Norwich intellectual life flourished. It contained one, so far unmentioned characteristic: The city "boasted of her intellectual supper-parties, where, amidst a pedantry which would now make laughter hold both his sides, there was much that was pleasant and salutary: The effects were aggravated by the loss of continental markets after Britain went to war with France in The s were marked by wage cuts and personal recrimination against owners.

So amid the rich commercial and cultural heritage of its recent past, Norwich suffered in the s from incipient decline exacerbated by a serious trade recession.

As early in the war as , a major city manufacturer and government supporter, Robert Harvey, complained of low order books, languid trade and a doubling of the poor rate.

Hayes describes a meeting of people in a Norwich public house, at which "Citizen Stanhope" spoke. Their activities included visits to revolutionary France prior to the execution of Louis XVI , the earliest British research into German literature, studies on medical science, petitioning for parliamentary reform, and publishing a highbrow literary magazine called "The Cabinet" in Their mixing of politics, religion and social campaigning was suspicious to Pitt and Windham—and caused Pitt to denounce Norwich as "the Jacobin city".

Edmund Burke attacked John Gurney in print for his sponsoring anti-war protests. Politics aside, it is safe to say that Norwich was the most active intellectual hotbed outside London in the s, and did not achieve a comparable prominence until the University of East of Anglia arrived in the late 20th century.

By it was not just the Norwich rabble who were causing the government concern. In April that year the Norwich Patriotic Society was established, its manifesto declaring "that the great end of civil society was general happiness; that every individual … had a right to share in the government …" [42] In December the price of bread reached its highest yet, and in May , when William Windham was forced to seek re-election following his appointment as war secretary, he only just held his seat.

Though informed by issues of recent national importance, the two-sided political culture of Norwich in the s cannot be totally disconnected from local tradition.

Two features stand out from a political continuum of three centuries. The first is the dichotomous power balance. From at least the time of the Reformation, there is a record of Norwich as a "two-party city".

Secondly, there seems to be a case for saying that with this tradition of two-sided disputation, the city had over a long period of time developed an infrastructure, evident in her many cultural and institutional networks of politics, religion, society, news media and the arts, whereby argument could be managed short of outright confrontation.

In Thomas Bignold , a year-old wine merchant and banker, founded the first Norwich Union Society. Some years earlier, when he moved from Kent to Norwich, Bignold had been unable to find anyone willing to insure him against the threat from highwaymen.

The new business, which became known as the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Office, was a "mutual" enterprise. From earliest times, Norwich was a textile centre.

In the s, the manufacture of Norwich shawls became an important industry [44] and remained so for nearly a hundred years. The shawls were a high-quality fashion product and rivalled those made in other towns such as Paisley which entered shawl manufacture in about , some 20 or more years after Norwich.

Examples of Norwich shawls are now highly sought after by collectors of textiles. From to , Norwich had a station in the shutter telegraph chain that connected the Admiralty in London to its naval ships in the port of Great Yarmouth.

A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Britannia Barracks in In the early part of the 20th century Norwich still had several major manufacturing industries.

Among them were the manufacture of shoes for example the Start-rite and Van Dal brands , clothing, joinery including the cabinet makers and furniture retailer Arthur Brett and Sons , which continues in business in the 21st century , and structural engineering, as well as aircraft design and manufacture.

The demolished factory stood on the site of what is now the Chapelfield development. HMSO , once the official publishing and stationery arm of the British government and one of the largest print buyers, printers and suppliers of office equipment in the UK, moved most of its operations from London to Norwich in the s.

It occupied the purpose-built Sovereign House building, near Anglia Square, which, in , stands empty, and is due for demolition if the long-postponed redevelopment of Anglia Square goes ahead.

Jarrolds , established in , was a nationally well-known printer and publisher. In , after nearly years, the printing and publishing businesses were sold.

The company is also active in property development in Norwich and has a business training division. The city was home to a long-established tradition of brewing, [50] with several large breweries continuing in business into the second half of the century.

Despite takeovers and consolidation in the s and s, by the s only the Norwich Brewery owned by Watney Mann and on the site of Morgans remained.

That too closed in and was subsequently demolished. Only microbreweries can be found today. This was in fact significantly under the actual amount, with the highest number of pubs in the city was in the year , with over beer-houses.

A Licensing Act in , had several detrimental effects for landlords and customers, with the total number of pubs dropping to By , the number had dropped to pubs within the City Walls.

The title of a pub for every day of the year survived until , when the Chief Constable informed the Licensing Justices that only licences were still operative [ citation needed ] , with the number slowly shrinking, as over 25 have closed in the last decade.

Norwich suffered extensive bomb damage during World War II, affecting large parts of the old city centre and Victorian terrace housing around the centre.

Industry and the rail infrastructure also suffered. Out of the 35, domestic dwellings in Norwich, 2, were destroyed, and another 27, suffered some damage.

As the war ended, the city council revealed what it had been working on before the war. However, the ten years between and completely altered the city, and significantly large areas of Norwich were cleared to make way for modern redevelopment.

The whole borough was demolished, which consisted of around 56 acres of existing streets, including dwellings considered unfit for human habitation , 42 shops, 4 offices, 22 public houses and 2 schools.

Ber Street , a once historical main road into the city had its whole eastern side demolished. The final part of St Peters Street at the top of St Peter Mancroft church , along with large Georgian houses at the top of Bethel Street was demolished to make way for car park for the new City Library in Many more buildings were demolished during the construction of the inner-ring road, which saw an ancient road junction, Stump Cross with Tudor and Georgian buildings in Magdalen Street, Botolph Street and most notably Pitt Street, cleared to make way for a fly-over and Brutalist concrete shopping centre, Anglia Square and office blocks such as HMSO building Sovereign House.

Other areas affected by the ring-road were Grapes Hill, a once narrow lane lined with Georgian and Victorian cottages, being cleared and widened to form a dual carriageway leading up in to a roundabout in Its unusual name comes from the Unthank family who were local landowners.

About a mile of Georgian houses along Chapelfield Road and Queens Road; which saw many houses that were built into the city walls, were bulldozed in This included the surrounding area near Vauxhall Street, consisting of Georgian cottages which were condemned as slums.

Post-war housing and maisonettes flats now stand where the Rookery slums once did. Further housing developments in the private and public sector took place after the Second World War, partly to accommodate the growing population of the city and also to replace condemned and bomb damaged areas, such as the Heigham Grove district between Barn Road and Old Palace Road, and West Pottergate off Dereham Road.

From to the City became a frequent focus of national media due to the squatting of Argyle Street , a Victorian street that was demolished in , despite being the last street left to survive the Richmond Hill redevelopment.

Norwich has been governed by two tiers of local government since the implementation of the Local Government Act The upper tier is Norfolk County Council , which manages strategic services such as schools, social services and libraries across the county of Norfolk.

The lower tier is Norwich City Council, which manages local services such as housing, planning, leisure and tourism. Norwich elects 13 county councillors to the member county council.

The city is divided into single-member electoral divisions, and county councillors are elected every four years. Norwich City Council consists of 39 councillors elected to represent 13 wards — three councillors per ward.

Elections are held by thirds, where one councillor in each ward is elected annually for a four-year term, except in the year of county council elections.

Following the local elections, the distribution of council seats is Labour 26, Green Party 10, Liberal Democrats 3. The ceremonial head of the city is the Lord Mayor ; though now simply a ceremonial position, in the past the office carried considerable authority, with executive powers over the finances and affairs of the city council.

As of [update] , the Lord Mayor is Cllr. Martin Schmierer, and the Sheriff Ros Brown. The office of mayor of Norwich dates from and was raised to the dignity of lord mayor in by Edward VII "in view of the position occupied by that city as the chief city of East Anglia and of its close association with His Majesty".

Under the Municipal Corporations Act this number of sheriffs was reduced to one, and it became an entirely ceremonial post.

In October , the Department for Communities and Local Government produced a Local Government White Paper inviting councils to submit proposals for unitary restructuring.

Norwich submitted its proposal in January , which was rejected in December , as it did not meet all the rigorous criteria for acceptance.

In February , the Boundary Committee for England from 1 April incorporated in the Local Government Boundary Commission for England , was asked to consider alternative proposals for the whole or part of Norfolk, including whether Norwich should become a unitary authority, separate from Norfolk County Council.

In December , the Boundary Committee recommended a single unitary authority covering all of Norfolk, including Norwich.

However, in February , it was announced that, contrary to the December recommendation of the Boundary Committee, Norwich would be given separate unitary status.

According to press reports, he instructed his department to take urgent steps to reverse the decision and maintain the status quo in line with the Conservative Party manifesto.

The disputed award of unitary status had meanwhile been referred to the High Court , and in June the court ruled it unlawful, and revoked it; the city failed to attain unitary status.

Since Norwich has returned two members of parliament to the House of Commons. Until the city was an undivided constituency , returning two MPs.

Since that date the area has been divided between two single-member constituencies: Norwich North and Norwich South. Norwich North, which includes some rural wards of Broadland District, was held by Labour from to when it was gained by the Conservatives.

Labour regained the seat in , holding it until a by-election in John Garrett regained the seat for Labour in In the General Election , both the incumbent MPs held their seats.

The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. The population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area i. The largest quinary group is 20 to year-olds The city has 56 primary schools including 16 academies and free schools and 13 secondary schools, 11 of which are academies.

The student population of the city is around 15,, [95] many of whom come from overseas. The University of East Anglia was founded in and is located on the outskirts of the city.

The university campus is the home of the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts , which houses a number of important art collections. Founded by artists and followers of the Norwich School art movement, it was established to provide designers for local industries.

Previously a specialist art school as the Norwich School of Art and Design , it achieved university status in Norwich has three further education colleges.

City College Norwich , situated on Ipswich Road, was founded in and is one of the largest colleges in the country. Historically Norwich has been associated with art, literature and publishing, which continues to the present day.

Norwich was the site of the first provincial library in England, which opened in , and was the first city to implement the Public Libraries Act W Won 2 - 0 against Stoke City on January 1st W Won 2 - 1 against Bolton Wanderers on January 12th W Won 1 - 0 against Nottingham Forest on January 19th W Won 2 - 0 against Millwall on January 12th W Won 2 - 0 against Ipswich Town on January 19th W Won 3 - 0 against Hull City on January 26th W Won 4 - 2 against Leeds United on January 1st L Lost 0 - 2 against Reading on January 12th L Lost 0 - 1 against Bristol City on January 19th W Won 3 - 1 against Wigan Athletic on January 26th L Lost 0 - 3 against Wigan Athletic on January 12th D Drew 2 - 2 against Hull City on January 19th W Won 2 - 1 against Ipswich Town on January 26th W Won 4 - 1 against Reading on January 1st W Won 1 - 0 against Sheffield United on January 19th D Drew 3 - 3 against Birmingham City on January 29th D Drew 1 - 1 against Sheffield Wednesday on January 1st L Lost 1 - 2 against Middlesbrough on January 12th L Lost 1 - 3 against Norwich City on January 18th D Drew 3 - 3 against Swansea City on January 29th W Won 6 - 0 against Bolton Wanderers on January 1st W Won 3 - 0 against Sheffield Wednesday on January 12th D Drew 2 - 2 against Aston Villa on January 19th L Lost 0 - 3 against Blackburn Rovers on January 26th D Drew 0 - 0 against Reading on December 29th D Drew 2 - 2 against Aston Villa on January 1st L Lost 0 - 1 against Sheffield United on January 12th L Lost 0 - 2 against Bristol City on January 1st L Lost 1 - 3 against Brentford on January 12th W Won 2 - 1 against Leeds United on January 19th D Drew 1 - 1 against Swansea City on January 12th W Won 2 - 0 against Stoke City on January 26th D Drew 0 - 0 against Derby County on February 1st D Drew 1 - 1 against Birmingham City on January 1st L Lost 0 - 3 against Hull City on January 12th W Won 1 - 0 against Wigan Athletic on January 19th Top Scorers Norwich City Home.

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League Table Championship Team P W D L F A GD Pts 1 Leeds 29 17 6 6 49 31 18 57 2 Norwich 29 15 9 5 54 38 16 54 3 Sheff Utd 29 15 6 8 48 31 17 51 4 West Brom 28 14 8 6 57 35 22 50 5 Middlesbrough 28 12 11 5 31 20 11 47 6 Derby 29 13 8 8 40 35 5 47 7 Bristol City 28 12 8 8 35 29 6 44 8 Blackburn 29 11 10 8 40 41 -1 43 9 Nottm Forest 29 10 12 7 42 33 9 42 10 Aston Villa 29 10 12 7 53 46 7 42 11 Swansea 29 11 8 10 40 35 5 41 12 Birmingham 29 9 13 7 43 36 7 40 13 Hull 29 11 7 11 41 38 3 40 14 QPR 28 11 6 11 34 39 -5 39 15 Stoke 29 9 11 9 33 37 -4 38 16 Preston 30 9 10 11 45 45 0 37 17 Sheff Wed 28 9 8 11 33 45 35 18 Brentford 28 8 10 10 43 39 4 34 19 Millwall 28 7 8 13 34 44 29 20 Wigan 29 8 5 16 29 44 29 21 Rotherham 29 5 10 14 28 48 25 22 Reading 29 5 9 15 32 44 24 23 Bolton 29 5 8 16 19 43 23 24 Ipswich 29 3 9 17 23 50 Farke on Pirates of the Caribbean curse.

Konferenzen, Ausstellungen, Seminare, Hochzeiten und Feiern aus. Der Zuschauerrekord des Stadions datiert aus dem Jahr , als Nach nur 82 Tagen war die neue Spielstätte errichtet und am Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Juni begannen die Bauarbeiten für die neue Heimat an der Carrow Road. Wiederum ein Jahr darauf folgte der erneute Abstieg. Januar um Bayer CropScience betreibt hier eine Fabrik. Dies und der steigende Verkehr führte dazu, dass die im Mittelalter erbaute Stadtmauer teilweise eingerissen und durch breitere Verkehrswege ersetzt wurde. Plätze für behinderte Besucher.

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Der Bau der Eisenbahnlinie und dreier Bahnhöfe, von denen lediglich die eröffnete 'Thorpe Station' heute noch besteht, sorgte für weitere Veränderung im Charakter der Stadt. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Das Catering des Stadions richtet für verschiedenste Veranstaltungen wie z. Dort musste die Mannschaft jedoch zum zweiten Mal eine Niederlage hinnehmen, dieses Mal mit 0: Im Stadtparlament hat seit der Wahl am 5. Weiter sind das Castle und St. Er wurde erbaut und beherbergt u. Der Wiederaufbau fand hauptsächlich während der er Jahre statt.

Footballer guilty of sexual assault. Reading bring in Oliveira on loan. Abuse case coach died of brain injury. Home win puts Norwich back in second place.

League Table Championship Team P W D L F A GD Pts 1 Leeds 29 17 6 6 49 31 18 57 2 Norwich 29 15 9 5 54 38 16 54 3 Sheff Utd 29 15 6 8 48 31 17 51 4 West Brom 28 14 8 6 57 35 22 50 5 Middlesbrough 28 12 11 5 31 20 11 47 6 Derby 29 13 8 8 40 35 5 47 7 Bristol City 28 12 8 8 35 29 6 44 8 Blackburn 29 11 10 8 40 41 -1 43 9 Nottm Forest 29 10 12 7 42 33 9 42 10 Aston Villa 29 10 12 7 53 46 7 42 11 Swansea 29 11 8 10 40 35 5 41 12 Birmingham 29 9 13 7 43 36 7 40 13 Hull 29 11 7 11 41 38 3 40 14 QPR 28 11 6 11 34 39 -5 39 15 Stoke 29 9 11 9 33 37 -4 38 16 Preston 30 9 10 11 45 45 0 37 17 Sheff Wed 28 9 8 11 33 45 35 18 Brentford 28 8 10 10 43 39 4 34 19 Millwall 28 7 8 13 34 44 29 20 Wigan 29 8 5 16 29 44 29 21 Rotherham 29 5 10 14 28 48 25 22 Reading 29 5 9 15 32 44 24 23 Bolton 29 5 8 16 19 43 23 24 Ipswich 29 3 9 17 23 50 Farke on Pirates of the Caribbean curse.

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These date from the 11th century onwards. Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest. The chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone, imported from Caen in Normandy.

To transport the building stone to the site, a canal was cut from the river from the site of present-day Pulls Ferry , all the way up to the east wall.

Herbert de Losinga then moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich. The Bishop of Norwich still signs himself Norvic.

Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in , and another one from Richard the Lionheart in Following a riot in the city in , Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope.

The first recorded presence of Jews in Norwich is Pilgrims made offerings to a shrine at the Cathedral largely finished by up to the 16th century, but the records suggest there were few of them.

In February , all the Jews of Norwich were massacred except for a few who found refuge in the castle.

At the site of a medieval well, the bones of 17 individuals, including 11 children, were found in by workers preparing the ground for construction of a Norwich shopping centre.

The remains were determined by forensic scientists to be most probably the remains of such murdered Jews, and a DNA expert determined that the victims were all related, so that they most probably came from one Ashkenazi Jewish family.

In , Whitefriars was founded. In the city was sacked by the "Disinherited". It has the distinction of being the only English city ever to be excommunicated, following a riot between citizens and monks in In the Cathedral received final consecration.

In the city flooded. Austin Friary was founded in that year. The wealth generated by the wool trade throughout the Middle Ages financed the construction of many fine churches, so that Norwich still has more medieval churches than any other city in Western Europe north of the Alps.

Throughout this period Norwich established wide-ranging trading links with other parts of Europe, its markets stretching from Scandinavia to Spain and the city housing a Hanseatic warehouse.

To organise and control its exports to the Low Countries , Great Yarmouth , as the port for Norwich, was designated one of the staple ports under the terms of the Statute of the Staple.

From to the city walls were built. However, when the city walls were constructed it was made illegal to build outside them, inhibiting expansion of the city.

Around this time, the city was made a county corporate and became the seat of one of the most densely populated and prosperous counties of England.

Part of these walls remain standing today. Hand-in-hand with the wool industry, this key religious centre experienced a Reformation significantly different to other parts of England.

The magistracy in Tudor Norwich unusually found ways of managing religious discord whilst maintaining civic harmony. The year saw an unprecedented rebellion in Norfolk.

Unlike popular challenges elsewhere in the Tudor period, it appears to have been Protestant in nature.

Unusually in England, it divided the city and appears to have linked Protestantism with the plight of the urban poor. Inhabitants of Ypres in particular chose Norwich above other destinations.

Norwich has traditionally been the home of various minorities, notably French Huguenot and Belgian Walloon communities in the 16th and 17th centuries.

The great "Stranger" immigration of brought a substantial Flemish and Walloon community of Protestant weavers to Norwich, where they are said to have been made welcome.

It seems that the Strangers were integrated into the local community without much animosity, at least among the business fraternity, who had the most to gain from their skills.

Their arrival in Norwich boosted trade with mainland Europe and fostered a movement toward religious reform and radical politics in the city. The Norwich Canary was first introduced into England by Flemings fleeing from Spanish persecution in the 16th century.

They brought with them not only advanced techniques in textile working but also pet canaries, which they began to breed locally, the little yellow bird eventually becoming, in the 20th century, a mascot of the city and the emblem of its football club, Norwich City F.

Printing was introduced to the city in by Anthony de Solempne, one of the "Strangers", but it did not take root and had died out by about However, to begin with, there had been a large element of Royalist sympathy within Norwich, which seems to have experienced a continuity of its two-sided political tradition throughout the period.

Bishop Matthew Wren was a forceful supporter of Charles I. Nonetheless, Parliamentary recruitment took hold. The strong Royalist party was stifled by a lack of commitment from the aldermen and isolation from Royalist-held regions.

According to Hopper , the explosion "ranks among the largest of the century". At the cost of some discomfort to the Mayor, the moderate Joseph Hall was targeted because of his position as Bishop of Norwich.

Norwich was marked in the period after the Restoration of and the ensuing century by a golden age of its cloth industry, comparable only to those in the West Country and Yorkshire.

Norwich was the wealthiest town in England, with a sophisticated system of poor relief , and a large influx of foreign refugees. This made Norwich unique in England, although there were some 50 cities of similar size in Europe.

Norwich in the late 17th century was riven politically. Churchman Humphrey Prideaux described "two factions, Whig and Tory … and both contend for their way with the utmost violence.

The pre-eminent citizen, Bishop William Lloyd, would not take the oaths of allegiance to the new monarchs.

Still, it was the end of the road for Norwich Jacobites, and the Whigs organised a notable celebration after the Battle of Culloden.

What the events of this period illustrate is that Norwich had had a strong tradition of popular protest favouring Church and Stuarts and attached to the street and alehouse.

Knights tells how in the mayoral election had ended in a riot, with both sides throwing "brick-ends and great paving stones" at each other. By there were rival Whig and Tory presses and even in mid-century, three-quarters of the males in some parishes were literate.

Norwich alehouses had clubs and societies meeting in them in , and at least more were formed before The open and contestable structure of local government, the press, the clubs and societies, and dissent all ensured that politics overlapped with communities bound by economics, religion, ideology and print in a world in which public opinion could not be ignored.

Amid this metropolitan culture the city burghers had built a sophisticated political structure. Freemen, who had the right to trade and to vote at elections, numbered about 2, in , rising to over 3, by the mids.

With growth partly the result of political manipulation, their numbers did at one point reach one-third of the adult male population. In Norwich, he says, a powerful Anglican establishment, symbolised by the Cathedral and the great church of St Peter Mancroft was matched by scarcely less powerful congeries of Dissenters headed by the wealthy literate body [of Unitarians] worshipping at the Octagon Chapel.

In the middle of political disorders of the late 18th century, Norwich intellectual life flourished. It contained one, so far unmentioned characteristic: The city "boasted of her intellectual supper-parties, where, amidst a pedantry which would now make laughter hold both his sides, there was much that was pleasant and salutary: The effects were aggravated by the loss of continental markets after Britain went to war with France in The s were marked by wage cuts and personal recrimination against owners.

So amid the rich commercial and cultural heritage of its recent past, Norwich suffered in the s from incipient decline exacerbated by a serious trade recession.

As early in the war as , a major city manufacturer and government supporter, Robert Harvey, complained of low order books, languid trade and a doubling of the poor rate.

Hayes describes a meeting of people in a Norwich public house, at which "Citizen Stanhope" spoke. Their activities included visits to revolutionary France prior to the execution of Louis XVI , the earliest British research into German literature, studies on medical science, petitioning for parliamentary reform, and publishing a highbrow literary magazine called "The Cabinet" in Their mixing of politics, religion and social campaigning was suspicious to Pitt and Windham—and caused Pitt to denounce Norwich as "the Jacobin city".

Edmund Burke attacked John Gurney in print for his sponsoring anti-war protests. Politics aside, it is safe to say that Norwich was the most active intellectual hotbed outside London in the s, and did not achieve a comparable prominence until the University of East of Anglia arrived in the late 20th century.

By it was not just the Norwich rabble who were causing the government concern. In April that year the Norwich Patriotic Society was established, its manifesto declaring "that the great end of civil society was general happiness; that every individual … had a right to share in the government …" [42] In December the price of bread reached its highest yet, and in May , when William Windham was forced to seek re-election following his appointment as war secretary, he only just held his seat.

Though informed by issues of recent national importance, the two-sided political culture of Norwich in the s cannot be totally disconnected from local tradition.

Two features stand out from a political continuum of three centuries. The first is the dichotomous power balance.

From at least the time of the Reformation, there is a record of Norwich as a "two-party city". Secondly, there seems to be a case for saying that with this tradition of two-sided disputation, the city had over a long period of time developed an infrastructure, evident in her many cultural and institutional networks of politics, religion, society, news media and the arts, whereby argument could be managed short of outright confrontation.

In Thomas Bignold , a year-old wine merchant and banker, founded the first Norwich Union Society. Some years earlier, when he moved from Kent to Norwich, Bignold had been unable to find anyone willing to insure him against the threat from highwaymen.

The new business, which became known as the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Office, was a "mutual" enterprise. From earliest times, Norwich was a textile centre.

In the s, the manufacture of Norwich shawls became an important industry [44] and remained so for nearly a hundred years.

The shawls were a high-quality fashion product and rivalled those made in other towns such as Paisley which entered shawl manufacture in about , some 20 or more years after Norwich.

Examples of Norwich shawls are now highly sought after by collectors of textiles. From to , Norwich had a station in the shutter telegraph chain that connected the Admiralty in London to its naval ships in the port of Great Yarmouth.

A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Britannia Barracks in In the early part of the 20th century Norwich still had several major manufacturing industries.

Among them were the manufacture of shoes for example the Start-rite and Van Dal brands , clothing, joinery including the cabinet makers and furniture retailer Arthur Brett and Sons , which continues in business in the 21st century , and structural engineering, as well as aircraft design and manufacture.

The demolished factory stood on the site of what is now the Chapelfield development. HMSO , once the official publishing and stationery arm of the British government and one of the largest print buyers, printers and suppliers of office equipment in the UK, moved most of its operations from London to Norwich in the s.

It occupied the purpose-built Sovereign House building, near Anglia Square, which, in , stands empty, and is due for demolition if the long-postponed redevelopment of Anglia Square goes ahead.

Jarrolds , established in , was a nationally well-known printer and publisher. In , after nearly years, the printing and publishing businesses were sold.

The company is also active in property development in Norwich and has a business training division. The city was home to a long-established tradition of brewing, [50] with several large breweries continuing in business into the second half of the century.

Despite takeovers and consolidation in the s and s, by the s only the Norwich Brewery owned by Watney Mann and on the site of Morgans remained. That too closed in and was subsequently demolished.

Only microbreweries can be found today. This was in fact significantly under the actual amount, with the highest number of pubs in the city was in the year , with over beer-houses.

A Licensing Act in , had several detrimental effects for landlords and customers, with the total number of pubs dropping to By , the number had dropped to pubs within the City Walls.

The title of a pub for every day of the year survived until , when the Chief Constable informed the Licensing Justices that only licences were still operative [ citation needed ] , with the number slowly shrinking, as over 25 have closed in the last decade.

Norwich suffered extensive bomb damage during World War II, affecting large parts of the old city centre and Victorian terrace housing around the centre.

Industry and the rail infrastructure also suffered. Out of the 35, domestic dwellings in Norwich, 2, were destroyed, and another 27, suffered some damage.

As the war ended, the city council revealed what it had been working on before the war. However, the ten years between and completely altered the city, and significantly large areas of Norwich were cleared to make way for modern redevelopment.

The whole borough was demolished, which consisted of around 56 acres of existing streets, including dwellings considered unfit for human habitation , 42 shops, 4 offices, 22 public houses and 2 schools.

Ber Street , a once historical main road into the city had its whole eastern side demolished. The final part of St Peters Street at the top of St Peter Mancroft church , along with large Georgian houses at the top of Bethel Street was demolished to make way for car park for the new City Library in Many more buildings were demolished during the construction of the inner-ring road, which saw an ancient road junction, Stump Cross with Tudor and Georgian buildings in Magdalen Street, Botolph Street and most notably Pitt Street, cleared to make way for a fly-over and Brutalist concrete shopping centre, Anglia Square and office blocks such as HMSO building Sovereign House.

Other areas affected by the ring-road were Grapes Hill, a once narrow lane lined with Georgian and Victorian cottages, being cleared and widened to form a dual carriageway leading up in to a roundabout in Its unusual name comes from the Unthank family who were local landowners.

About a mile of Georgian houses along Chapelfield Road and Queens Road; which saw many houses that were built into the city walls, were bulldozed in This included the surrounding area near Vauxhall Street, consisting of Georgian cottages which were condemned as slums.

Post-war housing and maisonettes flats now stand where the Rookery slums once did. Further housing developments in the private and public sector took place after the Second World War, partly to accommodate the growing population of the city and also to replace condemned and bomb damaged areas, such as the Heigham Grove district between Barn Road and Old Palace Road, and West Pottergate off Dereham Road.

From to the City became a frequent focus of national media due to the squatting of Argyle Street , a Victorian street that was demolished in , despite being the last street left to survive the Richmond Hill redevelopment.

Norwich has been governed by two tiers of local government since the implementation of the Local Government Act The upper tier is Norfolk County Council , which manages strategic services such as schools, social services and libraries across the county of Norfolk.

The lower tier is Norwich City Council, which manages local services such as housing, planning, leisure and tourism. Norwich elects 13 county councillors to the member county council.

The city is divided into single-member electoral divisions, and county councillors are elected every four years. Norwich City Council consists of 39 councillors elected to represent 13 wards — three councillors per ward.

Elections are held by thirds, where one councillor in each ward is elected annually for a four-year term, except in the year of county council elections.

Following the local elections, the distribution of council seats is Labour 26, Green Party 10, Liberal Democrats 3.

The ceremonial head of the city is the Lord Mayor ; though now simply a ceremonial position, in the past the office carried considerable authority, with executive powers over the finances and affairs of the city council.

As of [update] , the Lord Mayor is Cllr. Martin Schmierer, and the Sheriff Ros Brown. The office of mayor of Norwich dates from and was raised to the dignity of lord mayor in by Edward VII "in view of the position occupied by that city as the chief city of East Anglia and of its close association with His Majesty".

Under the Municipal Corporations Act this number of sheriffs was reduced to one, and it became an entirely ceremonial post.

In October , the Department for Communities and Local Government produced a Local Government White Paper inviting councils to submit proposals for unitary restructuring.

Norwich submitted its proposal in January , which was rejected in December , as it did not meet all the rigorous criteria for acceptance.

In February , the Boundary Committee for England from 1 April incorporated in the Local Government Boundary Commission for England , was asked to consider alternative proposals for the whole or part of Norfolk, including whether Norwich should become a unitary authority, separate from Norfolk County Council.

In December , the Boundary Committee recommended a single unitary authority covering all of Norfolk, including Norwich. However, in February , it was announced that, contrary to the December recommendation of the Boundary Committee, Norwich would be given separate unitary status.

According to press reports, he instructed his department to take urgent steps to reverse the decision and maintain the status quo in line with the Conservative Party manifesto.

The disputed award of unitary status had meanwhile been referred to the High Court , and in June the court ruled it unlawful, and revoked it; the city failed to attain unitary status.

Since Norwich has returned two members of parliament to the House of Commons. Until the city was an undivided constituency , returning two MPs. Since that date the area has been divided between two single-member constituencies: Norwich North and Norwich South.

Norwich North, which includes some rural wards of Broadland District, was held by Labour from to when it was gained by the Conservatives.

Labour regained the seat in , holding it until a by-election in John Garrett regained the seat for Labour in In the General Election , both the incumbent MPs held their seats.

The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. The population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area i. The largest quinary group is 20 to year-olds The city has 56 primary schools including 16 academies and free schools and 13 secondary schools, 11 of which are academies.

The student population of the city is around 15,, [95] many of whom come from overseas. The University of East Anglia was founded in and is located on the outskirts of the city.

The university campus is the home of the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts , which houses a number of important art collections. Founded by artists and followers of the Norwich School art movement, it was established to provide designers for local industries.

Previously a specialist art school as the Norwich School of Art and Design , it achieved university status in Norwich has three further education colleges.

City College Norwich , situated on Ipswich Road, was founded in and is one of the largest colleges in the country. Historically Norwich has been associated with art, literature and publishing, which continues to the present day.

Norwich was the site of the first provincial library in England, which opened in , and was the first city to implement the Public Libraries Act It is ranked about the th biggest city in Europe.

The Forum, designed by Michael Hopkins and Partners and opened in is a building designed to house the Norfolk and Norwich Millennium Library, a replacement for the Norwich Central Library building which burned down in , and the regional headquarters and television centre for BBC East.

For the seventh consecutive year since it has been the most visited library in the UK, with 1. Much of the collection was lost in the fire, but the collection has been restored by contributions from many veterans of the war, both European and American.

The building also provides a venue for art exhibitions, concerts and events, although the city still lacks a dedicated concert venue.

Recent attempts to shed the backwater image of Norwich and market it as a popular tourist destination, as well as a centre for science, commerce, culture and the arts, have included the refurbishment of the Norwich Castle Museum and the opening of the Forum.

It remains to be seen whether it will be finally adopted. A number of signs at the approaches to the city still display the traditional phrase: The city promotes its architectural heritage through a collection of notable buildings in Norwich called the " Norwich 12 ".

The group consists of: Each year the Norfolk and Norwich Festival celebrates the arts, drawing many visitors into the city from all over eastern England.

The Norwich Twenty Group , founded in , presents exhibitions of its members to promote awareness of modern art.

Norwich was home to the first arts festival in Britain in Live music, mostly contemporary musical genres, is also to be heard at a number of other public house and club venues around the city.

Norwich is also the home of jazz and blues vocalist Albert Cooper born , who has performed on innumerable occasions in the city since The event was held on 23—24 May in Earlham Park.

British artist Stella Vine lived in Norwich from the age of seven, [] including for a short while in Argyle Street, Norwich and again later in life with her son Jamie.

Vine depicted the city in a large painting, Welcome to Norwich a fine city Norwich has theatres ranging in capacity from to 1, seats and offering a wide variety of programmes.

The Theatre Royal is the largest and has been on its present site for nearly years, through several rebuildings and many alterations. It has 1, seats and hosts a mix of national touring productions including musicals, dance, drama, family shows, stand-up comedians, opera and pop.

The Maddermarket Theatre opened in and was the first permanent recreation of an Elizabethan theatre. The founder was Nugent Monck who had worked with William Poel.

The theatre is a Shakespearean -style playhouse and has a seating capacity of Norwich Puppet Theatre was founded in by Ray and Joan DaSilva as a permanent base for their touring company and was first opened as a public venue in , following the conversion of the medieval church of St.

James in the heart of Norwich. Under subsequent artistic directors — Barry Smith and Luis Z. Boy — the theatre established its current pattern of operation.

It is a nationally unique venue dedicated to puppetry, and currently houses a seat raked auditorium, the seat Octagon Studio, workshops, an exhibition gallery, shop and licensed bar.

It is the only theatre in the Eastern region with a year-round programme of family-centred entertainment. The Norwich Playhouse , which opened in and has seating capacity of , is a venue in the heart of the city and one of the most modern performance spaces of its size in East Anglia.

The Garage studio theatre can seat up to people in a range of layouts. It can also be used for standing events to accommodate up to people.

Platform Theatre is in the grounds of the City College Norwich. Productions are staged mainly during the autumn and summer months. The theatre is raked and seats about people.

On 20 April , the theatre held a large relaunch event with an evening performance, show-casing it at its best with previews of upcoming performances and scenes from some of its past performances.

The Whiffler Theatre was built and was given to the people of Norwich by the local newspaper group Eastern Daily Press.

It is an open-air facility in Norwich Castle Gardens, with fixed-raked seating for up to 80 people and standing for another 30 on the balcony. The stage is brick-built and has its dressing-rooms set in a small building to stage left.

The Whiffler mainly plays host to small Shakespeare productions. Sewell Barn Theatre is the smallest theatre in Norwich and has a seating capacity of just The auditorium features raked seating on three sides of an open acting space.

This unusual staging helps to draw the audience closely into the performance. Public performance spaces include the Forum in the city centre, which has a large open-air amphitheatre , hosting performances of many types throughout the year.

Additionally, the cloisters of Norwich Cathedral are used for open-air performances as part of an annual Shakespeare festival. Norwich has a number of important museums which reflect the rich history of the city and of Norfolk as well as wider interests.

The largest is Norwich Castle Museum. This has extensive collections of archaeological finds from the county of Norfolk, of art including a fine collection of paintings by the Norwich School of painters , of ceramics including the largest collection of British teapots , of silver, and of natural history.

Of particular interest are dioramas of Norfolk scenery, showing wildlife and landscape. It has been extensively remodelled to enhance the display of the many collections, and hosts frequent temporary exhibitions of art and other subjects.

The Museum of Norwich until called The Bridewell Museum , in Bridewell Alley, was closed in for a major refurbishment of the building and overhaul of the displays, [] and re-opened in July These include "Life in Norwich: Our City —"; "Life in Norwich: The many rooms are furnished and equipped in the styles of different eras, from the Early Tudor to the Late Victorian.

The last two collections are considered to be of national importance. The Royal Norfolk Regimental Museum was, until , housed in part of the former Shirehall, close to the castle.

Although archives and the reserve collections are still held in the Shirehall, the principal museum display there closed in September , and was relocated to the main Norwich Castle Museum, reopening fully in There is an extensive and representative display of medals awarded to soldiers of the regiment, including two of the six Victoria Crosses won.

Faith , on the northern edge of the city and close to Norwich Airport. There are static displays of both military and civil aircraft, together with various collections of exhibits, including one concerned with the United States 8th Army Air Force.

Exhibits range in date from the early 19th century to the present day. Many were donated by Jarrold Printing.

Mostly dating from about , it is unique in Western Europe. In the building underwent a thorough restoration. Its magnificent architecture is complemented by displays showing the history of the building and its role in the life of Norwich through the ages.

The Norfolk Museums and Archaeology Service Costume and Textiles Study Centre, at the Shirehall in Market Avenue, contains an extensive collection of more than 20, items, built up over a period of some years, and previously kept in other Norwich museums.

Although not a publicly open museum in the usual sense, the collection is accessible to the general public, students, researchers and others by prior appointment.

Norwich has three cinema complexes. Prince of Wales Road in the city centre, running from the Riverside district near Norwich railway station to Norwich Castle, is home to many pubs, bars and clubs.

Independent radio stations based in Norwich include Heart , Smooth Radio , A community station, Future Radio , was launched on 6 August Launched in , Anglia Television lost its independence in following a takeover by Meridian Broadcasting and subsequent mergers have seen it reduced from a significant producer of programmes to a regional news centre.

However, despite the contraction of Anglia, television production in Norwich has by no means ended. Degree courses in film and video are also run at the centre by Norwich University of the Arts.

Epic has commercial, broadcast quality post-production facilities, a real-time virtual studio and a smaller HD discussion studio. The main studio opened as an HD facility in November Throughout , the centre has concentrated on the development of new TV formats and has worked on pilot shows with Les Dennis, Gaby Roslin and Christopher Biggins.

Alpha Papa is a Norwich broadcaster played by Steve Coogan. The city was also the retirement residence of Arthur Dee died Norwich, the eldest son of the alchemist John Dee [] [].

Norwich was also the residence of the physician and hermetic philosopher Sir Thomas Browne , author of The Garden of Cyrus Translated from Latin it reads, Great Virtues, … sleeping here the dust of his spagyric body converts the lead to gold.

Browne is also a significant figure in the history of physiognomy. Housed within the church there is the Layer Monument , a rare example of an alchemical mandala in European funerary art.

From the congregation of the New Jerusalem Church of Swedenborgians , followers of the mystic Emanuel Swedenborg , worshipped at the church of St.

Norwich has a wealth of historical architecture. The medieval period is represented by the 11th-century Norwich Cathedral , 12th-century castle now a museum and a large number of parish churches.

During the Middle Ages , 57 churches stood within the city wall; 31 still exist today, and seven are still used for worship.

Norwich is said to have more standing medieval churches than any city north of the Alps.

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