5. März Vor Jahren ist die Titanic untergegangen; Eindrucksvolle Fotos illustrieren, wie es zu dem Unglück gekommen ist; Im Video oben: Das. wie viele passagiere waren auf der titanic - Die Katastrophe vom April Der Untergang der Titanic. - April Die nachfolgende Liste von Hermann Söldner führt alle Passagiere der ersten, zweiten und dritten Klasse auf. Die Liste ist als vollständig zu. Inher first year, Stuart had four films released, then nine liga heutesix in be win Stuart was a lifelong Democrat. So war schon die Great Eastern von in viele wasserdichte Abteile unterteilt. Island in the Sky. Meine bw bank Pickard, Berk Trembisky, 32, 3. Klasse Betros Kaouy, Tannous, 20, 3. Klasse Jalsevac, Ivan, 29, 3. In these days, open berths were still fairly common on the North Atlantic, which White Star had from the start gradually shied away from. Los Angeles Film Critics Association. Klasse Allen, William Henry, 35, 3.
Passagiere Titanic VideoTitanic
It had long been customary for many shipping lines to have a common theme for the names of their ships. White Star gave their ships names ending in -ic.
The line also adopted a buff-coloured funnel with a black top as a distinguishing feature for their ships, as well as a distinctive house flag , a red broad pennant with two tails, bearing a white five-pointed star.
In the initial designs for this first fleet of liners, each ship was to measure feet in length, 40 feet in width and approximately 3, in gross tonnage, equipped with compound expansion engines powering a single screw, and capable of speeds of up to 14 knots.
When Oceanic sailed on her maiden voyage on 2 March, she departed Liverpool with only 64 passengers aboard, from whence she was expected to make port at Queenstown the following day to pick up more passengers before proceeding to New York.
However, before she had cleared the Welsh coast her bearings overheated off Holyhead and she was forced to return for repairs.
She resumed her crossing on 17 March and ended up not completing the crossing to New York until 28 March. However, upon her arrival in New York, she drew considerable attention, as by the time she departed on her return crossing to Liverpool on 15 April, some 50, spectators had looked her over.
In the eighteen months to follow, the five remaining ships were completed, and one by one, joined her on the North Atlantic run.
Atlantic sailed on her maiden voyage from Liverpool on 8 June without incident. However, later that summer another problem surfaced which posed a threat to public opinion of the line.
Of the six ships, the names originally selected for third and sixth ships of the fleet had initially been selected as Pacific and Arctic , which when mentioned in the press appeared alongside references two ships of the same names which had belonged to the since defunct Collins Line , both of which were lost at sea with large losses of life.
In the cases of those ships, both of which had been wooden hulled paddle steamers, the Arctic had foundered of the coast of Newfoundland in September after colliding with another ship, resulting in the loss of over lives, while the Pacific vanished with on board in January As a result, White Star made arrangements to change the names of these two ships.
The third ship of the fleet, which had been launched as Pacific on 8 March was renamed Baltic prior to its completion, a name which she sailed under on her maiden voyage on 14 September.
The fourth vessel of the Oceanic class, Republic sailed on her maiden voyage on 1 February , around which time modifications were being made to the last two ships still under construction.
Alterations in their designs called for their hulls to be extended in length by 17 feet, which for the Adriatic increased her gross tonnage to 3,, and for Celtic her tonnage was increased to 3, Adriatic entered service on 11 April , followed by Celtic six months later on 24 October.
These ships began their careers with notable success, the most notable being Adriatic , which after barely a month in service became the first White Star ship to capture the Blue Riband, having completed a record westbound crossing in 7 days, 23 hours and 17 minutes at an average speed of In January , Baltic became the first of the line to capture the Blue Riband for an eastbound crossing, having completed a return trip to Liverpool in 7 days, 20 hours and 9 minutes at an average speed of The first substantial loss for the company came only four years after its founding, occurring 31 March with the sinking of the SS Atlantic and the loss of lives near Halifax, Nova Scotia.
While en route to New York from Liverpool amidst a vicious storm, the Atlantic attempted to make port at Halifax when a concern arose that the ship would run out of coal before reaching New York.
However, when attempting to enter Halifax, she ran aground on the rocks and sank in shallow waters. Despite being so close to shore, a majority of the victims of the disaster drowned.
The crew were blamed for serious navigational errors by the Canadian Inquiry, although a British Board of Trade investigation cleared the company of all extreme wrongdoing.
These two ships measured in design at feet in length, 45 in width, each with a gross tonnage of roughly 5, tons and with engines of similar design as seen in the earlier ships, with the exception of greater horsepower, capable of driving their single screws at speeds of up to 15 knots.
Also increased was passenger capacity, as designs for these ships provided for Saloon passengers and 1, Steerage passengers. The first of the pair, which had initially been named Hellenic , was launched as Britannic on 3 February and commenced on her maiden voyage to New York on 25 June.
The Germanic captured the westbound record first in August , then captured the eastbound record in February , while Britannic captured both records within less than two months of each other, beating the westbound record in November and the eastbound record in December.
Germanic captured the westbound record for the last time in April Over the next 12 years, White Star focused their attention on other matters of business, expanding their services with the introduction of several cargo and livestock carriers on the North Atlantic as well as establishing a small but lucrative passenger and cargo service to New Zealand.
In an effort to outdo their competitors, White Star began making plans to put two new liners into service which would prove to be exceptionally innovative in design for the time, Teutonic and Majestic.
In order to build these new ships, Thomas Ismay made arrangements with the British Government under which in exchange for financial support from the British government, the two new ships would be designed as not only passenger liners, but also as armed merchant cruisers which could be requisitioned by the British Navy in times of war.
Measuring at feet in length and 57 feet in width and with a gross tonnage of just under 10, tons, the new liners would be nearly twice the size of Britannic and Germanic.
Additionally, owing to the arrangement with the British Government, the Teutonic and Majestic were the first White Star liners to be built with twin screws, powered by triple expansion engines capable of driving the ships at speeds of up to 19 knots.
Their First Class accommodations, were located amidships on all four decks, with Second Class located abaft of first on the three uppermost decks on Teutonic and all four decks on Majestic , and Third Class located at the far forward and aft ends of the vessel on the Saloon and Main decks.
One notable development associated with the introduction of these two new ships was that they were the first White Star liners to incorporate the three-class passenger system.
Prior to this, White Star had made smaller attempts to enter the market for Second Class travelers on the North Atlantic by adding limited spaces for Second Class passengers on their older liners.
According to De Kerbrech, spaces for Second Class were added to Adriatic in , Celtic in and Republic in , often occupying one or two compartments formerly occupied by Steerage berths.
Construction on the two liners progressed in roughly six-month intervals, with the Teutonic being launched in January and sailing on her maiden voyage to New York the following August; while Majestic was launched in June and entered service in April Although due to scheduling commitments she could not take part in the actual review, she anchored briefly amidst a line of merchant ships awaiting review, complete with four guns mounted, during which time she was toured by the Prince of Wales and Kaiser Wilhelm II.
The Kaiser, much impressed with what he saw in Teutonic , is rumored to have mentioned to others in his party "We must have one of these!
Majestic beat the westbound record first on 5 August , arriving in New York in 5 days, 18 hours and 8 minutes after keeping an average speed of This record was beat by Teutonic , which arrived in New York on 19 August and beat the previous record by 1 hour and 37 minutes, this time maintaining an average speed of With the introduction of Teutonic and Majestic , White Star did away with some of their aging fleet to make room for the new ships.
Veendam was lost at sea without loss of life after striking a submerged object in , while Maasdam was again sold in to La Veloce Navigazione Italiana and renamed Citta di Napoli , after which she was used as an emigrant ship for an additional eight years before being sold for scrap at Genoa in This, however, failed to prove profitable for the line and she was sold for scrap at Brest in Beginning in the late s, White Star experienced an explosion of rapid growth and expansion of its services, highlighted by a dramatic shift in focus from building the fastest ships on the North Atlantic to building the most comfortable and luxurious.
Their first step in this direction came in during the construction of a new ship, Cymric. Initially designed as an enlarged version of the livestock carrier Georgic , which had entered service in , Cymric had been planned as a combination passenger and livestock carrier, and thus was not designed with engines necessary to qualify her for the express service maintained by Britannic , Germanic , Teutonic and Majestic.
Therefore, in addition to the accommodations planned for First Class passengers, her designs were altered to include berthing for 1, Third Class passengers.
Overall, her modest layout and design placed her with a footing directly between that of the aged but well reputable Britannic and Germanic and that of the more modern Teutonic and Majestic.
Measuring at just over 13, tons and with a length of feet and a beam of 64 feet, she was to be the largest liner in the White Star fleet, for a time at least.
Additionally, her more utilitarian appearance with a single funnel and four masts contrasted her against her four running mates considerably.
However, as a result of this partial transition from livestock carrier to passenger liner, Cymric came to attain several noteworthy advantages which White Star would implore on several other liners.
While her passenger accommodations had been modified, the specifications of her machinery and engines were left in place. Like Teutonic and Majestic , Cymric was fitted with twin screws, but was instead powered by quadruple expansion engines capable of achieving a modest speed of 15 knots commonly seen in cargo and livestock carriers of that time.
The major difference was that because these engines were designed for more modest speeds, they were considerably smaller and required only seven boilers, leaving more space within the hull for passenger and crew accommodations.
The new steamers, which were intended to be named Oceanic and Olympic , were designed to be both the largest and most luxurious the world had ever seen.
Because the shipbuilder had never constructed a vessel of this size, work on the ship was delayed until an overhead gantry crane could be built. Her launch on 14 January drew an immense crowd of spectators numbering more than 50,, as the launch placed Oceanic in history as the last British Trans-Atlantic liner to be launched in the 19th century as well as the first to exceed the Great Eastern in length.
Like Teutonic and Majestic , Oceanic was designed with capabilities to be converted to an armed merchant cruiser in time of war if needed, specifications for which included her to be built with a double-plated hull and turrets on her upper decks which could be quickly mounted with guns.
Additionally, she had a considerably larger passenger capacity of just over 1,, providing for First Class, Second Class and 1, Third Class.
Oceanic sailed on her maiden voyage from Liverpool on 6 September , arriving in New York to much added fanfare on the morning of 13 September with 1, passengers aboard, many of whom were well satisfied with how the crossing had gone.
Thus, during her maiden voyage her engines had been run and maintained an average speed of just under 19 knots. His reply was thus as follows: She is to swing back and forth across the Atlantic with the regularity of a pendulum.
Unfortunately, Thomas Ismay was unable to enjoy the fruits of his labor, much to the dismay of his family and his colleagues. Just a few weeks after Oceanic was launched, Thomas began complaining of pains in his chest, from whence his health steadily began to decline.
The name was shelved, only to be reused 12 years later. His health improved for a brief time, allowing him to visit Oceanic upon her completion in Belfast that July.
During his visit, Belfast officials awarded him with a key to the city, citing his contributions to the local economy and to British merchant shipping.
Unfortunately, in late August he took a turn for the worse and he underwent two operations to alleviate his ailment, both of which proved unsuccessful, and Thomas suffered a heart attack on 14 September.
He lingered in worsening agony for another ten weeks until his death on 23 November at the age of Even before Oceanic had been completed, White Star had already started making plans for a considerably large addition to their fleet.
This time around, plans were essentially the same as they had been with Oceanic , only taking considerable more steps in innovation. The initial designs for Celtic had her at feet in length, a tad bit shorter than Oceanic , but with a greater breadth of her predecessor at 75 feet.
Additionally, while the Oceanic had set the record for length, Celtic would triumph in tonnage, weighing in at just over 20, tons.
One interesting note about this new ship was in regards to her engines. Historian Mark Chirnside made a notable comparison between the machinery installed aboard Cymric and that placed in Oceanic.
Because Cymric had initially been designed as a livestock carrier, she was built with smaller engines capable of modest speeds which both consumed less coal and occupied less space within the hull.
As a result, there was an astonishing difference which gave Cymric a considerable advantage over Oceanic.
Although Cymric was overall only about two-thirds the size of Oceanic in terms of gross tonnage 12, to 17, , her net tonnage, a unit of measurement used to account for space aboard a ship usable for passengers and cargo was actually greater than what was seen in the larger vessel 8, net tons aboard Cymric compared to only 6, with the Oceanic.
According to Chirnside, builders and designers used this as a baseline for engine designs for Celtic. Because she was geared to set lower service speeds, her coal consumption was far less at only tons per day, which compared to the tons per day needed to power Oceanic made her much more economical.
Additionally, Celtic was to be designed with far greater capacities for both passengers and cargo. Her plans called for accommodations for a staggering 2, passengers: Passenger accommodations were spread across six decks, titled from top to bottom: First Class accommodations were located amidships on the uppermost four decks and included a lounge and smoke room on the Boat Deck, as well as a grand and spacious dining room on the Saloon Deck.
Second Class accommodations were allocated to the starboard sides of the Saloon and Upper Decks. Like as seen aboard Teutonic , Majestic , and Oceanic , Second Class passengers were provided with their own smoke room and library, housed within a separate deckhouse situated just aft of the main superstructure, directly beneath which on the Saloon Deck was located their dining room.
What made Celtic rather exceptional for the time was her Third Class accommodations, which in addition to ample open deck space on the Promenade Deck, were located on the Saloon, Upper and Lower Decks at both the forward and aft ends of the vessel, with a vast majority being located aft.
The pattern followed that as was seen on all White Star vessels on the North Atlantic, with single men berthed forward, and single women, married couples and families berthed aft.
An additional, fairly larger dining room was located directly beneath these on the Upper Deck, while a fourth dining room was located forward where single men were to be berthed, for which this dining room was equipped with a service bar.
Aside from this, the biggest change brought by the Celtic for Third Class passengers was in sleeping quarters. In these days, open berths were still fairly common on the North Atlantic, which White Star had from the start gradually shied away from.
Aboard the Oceanic class liners, Britannic and Germanic , steerage passengers had been provided with large rooms which generally slept around 20 people, while aboard Teutonic and Majestic the usage of two and four berth cabins had been introduced, but only for married couples and families with children, a policy which also held with Cymric and Oceanic.
Celtic broke that mold. At the forward end of the vessel, located in two compartments on the Lower Deck were accommodations of the older style of sleeping arrangements, each compartment providing for single men.
The remaining 1, berths were located aft, all of which consisted of two, four and six berth cabins. Construction progressed on her rapidly, and as White Star had planned, the new fleet of liners would be constructed in overlapping succession, as in October , while Celtic s hull was nearing completion, construction began on the second ship, Cedric.
When Celtic was launched in April , there was much fanfare, as she was hailed the largest ship in the world in terms of tonnage, as well as being the first to exceed the tonnage of the infamous Great Eastern.
She took a mere four additional months for fitting out before sailing on her maiden voyage from Liverpool on 26 July of that year.
Meanwhile, construction on Cedric had proceeded as planned and she was launched on 21 August Although she was of exactly the same dimensions as Celtic in length and width, she outweighed her twin by a mere tons, making her now the largest ship in the world.
Despite their similarities, the two had distinct differences. Aboard Cedric , First Class accommodations included more private bathrooms as well as more suites consisting of interconnecting cabins provided with sitting rooms.
Cedric entered service later that winter, departing Liverpool on her maiden voyage on 11 February One notable instance in her construction was once her keel was fitted in place, White Star gave orders for her length to be extended by 28 feet.
This change in plans required builders to cut her keel in two, move the after end backwards and install the new addition in between. Their reasons for this addition was likely to provide more spaces for passenger accommodations, which combined added up to 2, passengers Although Baltic was designed with the same layout for Third Class passengers as Cedric , with a capacity of 2,, her First and Second Class capacities were significantly greater.
First Class was increased to a capacity for passengers, while capacity for Second Class was extended to passengers, almost twice that of Cedric and three times that of Celtic.
Simultaneously, the added length also increased her gross tonnage to 23,, making her now the largest ship in the world.
Baltic was launched on 12 November , subsequently fitted out and delivered to White Star on 23 June , and sailed on her maiden voyage on 29 June.
Von den vorhandenen 1. Viele der an Bord befindlichen Personen glaubten, die Titanic sei ein sichererer Ort als die kleinen Rettungsboote. Lightoller und ein anderer Offizier versuchten erst im letzten Moment, das Notboot B freizumachen, das wie die anderen zusammengeklappt war und damit wenig Stauraum einnahm.
Zu dieser Zeit wurde auch Kesselraum Nummer 2 wegen Wassereinbruch evakuiert. Dabei wurden auch die Dampf- und Stromleitungen gekappt, und das Schiff lag im Dunkeln.
Es wurden nochmals drei Menschen gerettet, die sich an Treibgut festgehalten hatten. Insgesamt riss die Titanic zwischen 1. Hays starben beim Untergang.
Quelle ist ein Bericht des britischen Parlaments von So waren Frauen und insbesondere Kinder der 3. Nach der britischen Untersuchung, die sich mit dieser Thematik befasste, gab es auf dem Bootsdeck aber keine Diskriminierung nach Klassen.
Trotz mehrerer sachlicher Fehler bzgl. Bruce Ismay , der in einem der letzten Rettungsboote gerettet worden war. New York erfuhr am Morgen des April von der Katastrophe.
Erst die New York Times berichtete: Die Mackay-Bennett aus Halifax, Kanada, fuhr am Auf einem, dem Fairview Cemetery in Halifax , Neuschottland , in Kanada, ruhen Opfer der Katastrophe, von denen 44 nicht identifiziert werden konnten.
Die Grabsteine sind aus schwarzem Granit, in drei Reihen aufgestellt, in der Form eines Schiffsbuges. Auf allen steht das gleiche Sterbedatum: Hilfsorganisationen nahmen sich der Geretteten an.
Die Reise der Olympic wurde daraufhin abgesagt. April bis zum Mai bis zum 3. Grundlage dieser Anschuldigungen ist die Annahme, die Californian sei das Schiff gewesen, dessen Lichter von der Titanic aus gesichtet wurden.
Der Funker der Californian war zu dieser Zeit bereits im Bett. Das einzige Schiff, das gegen Dem beim Untergang umgekommenen William M.
Zum richtigen Zeitpunkt musste dabei das Ruder von Linkskurs wieder nach rechts gesteuert werden. Das deckt sich mit den Lecks der Titanic, die bis kurz hinter diese Stelle reichen.
Durch die Konzentration des Wassers im Bug sei dieser zu schnell unter Wasser gesunken und habe dadurch die Titanic vorzeitig versenkt.
Die ersten zwei Meldungen kamen am Eine Eiswarnung der Californian kam gegen Die Californian meldete, sie habe um Ein letzter Funkspruch erreichte Phillips von der Californian , die von Eis umgeben sei und feststecke.
Allein seine Entscheidung, trotz zahlreicher Eiswarnungen Kurs und Geschwindigkeit beizubehalten, hat das Schicksal des Schiffes besiegelt.
Die Nacht war zwar klar, doch aufgrund von Neumond besonders dunkel. Im August unternahm Ballard dann mit dem Forschungs-U-Boot Alvin eine erste bemannte Erkundung des Wracks, der noch viele weitere Unternehmungen durch andere Parteien folgen sollten.
Dabei wurden neben der Untersuchung des Wracks auch zahlreiche Artefakte geborgen. Der Bug ist bis zur Bruchstelle relativ gut erhalten.
In einem Antrag vom In seiner Entscheidung vom Juli insofern auf. Mit Wirkung ab Die Deckplanken und etliche andere Holzausstattungselemente sind teilweise schon zersetzt.
Dasselbe wird langfristig auch dem gesamten Schiffswrack prophezeit: Die Experten gehen mittlerweile davon aus, dass das Wrack sich noch Jahrzehnte halten wird.
Ebenso haben Wracktouristen Plastikblumen und andere Andenken hinterlassen. Jahrestag des Untergangs unter Schutz. Nach dem Fund des Wracks konnten einige strittige Fragen beantwortet werden.
Dabei wurde ein spezielles Sonar eingesetzt, das auch durch die oberen Bodenschichten hindurch Bilder liefert.
Das erste der Lecks befand sich in der Vorpiek knapp unterhalb der Wasserlinie. Auch dabei wurde wieder ein Teil des Eisbergs abgeschert, wodurch die beiden letzten Lecks noch tiefer unter der Wasserlinie lagen.
Es betraf Kesselraum 6 und den vorderen Bereich von Kesselraum 5. Die Theorie wird allerdings von verschiedener Seite angezweifelt. Auch die fertiggestellte Queen Mary wurde aus der gleichen Stahlsorte gebaut, wobei die Stahlplatten in Bezug auf die Herkunft und Dicke identisch mit denen der Titanic sind.
Laut der Theorie versank nicht die Titanic im Nordatlantik, sondern ihr Schwesterschiff, die Olympic. Dieser Theorie widersprechen jedoch einige Bauteile, die seit der Entdeckung des Wracks durch Robert Ballard im Jahre untersucht wurden.
Im Januar sei der Vollmond der Erde so nah wie seit 1. Breitengrads betrage ohnehin 1—3 Jahre. Die abgesendeten Morsesignale konnten des Weiteren nicht durch die Luftschichten bis zur Titanic dringen.
So war schon die Great Eastern von in viele wasserdichte Abteile unterteilt. Da die Great Eastern als Passagierschiff erfolglos blieb und nur als Kabelleger Geld erwirtschaftete, wagte kein Reeder mehr eine kompromisslos auf Sicherheit ausgerichtete Konstruktion.
Die wasserdichte Einteilung von Schiffen ist damals wie heute ein Kompromiss zwischen der Sicherheit auf der einen und der wirtschaftlichen Nutzbarkeit sowie den Baukosten auf der anderen Seite.
Die wasserdichte Unterteilung war wie folgt aufgebaut: Nach dem Untergang der Titanic wurde bei deren Schwesterschiff Britannic ein solcher Versuch unternommen.
Unklar ist bislang immer noch, wie genau die Titanic auseinandergebrochen ist. Am Wrack kann man jedoch erkennen, dass an der Bruchstelle die Decks nach unten gezogen sind und keine saubere Bruchstelle haben.
Long hat die Theorie aufgestellt, dass das Heck der Titanic bereits anfing abzubrechen, als es mit ca. Der Bruch fing demnach an den oberen Decks an und zog sich bis zum Kiel.
Vor allem in Fernsehdokumentationen werden oft andere Schiffe als die Titanic gezeigt. Manchmal handelt es sich um die Olympic, nicht selten aber um einen beliebigen anderen Vierschornstein-Dampfer, zum Beispiel die Lusitania.
Aber auch offizielle Dokumente sind nicht fehlerfrei.