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Initially a horse-bus service operated from the station to the city, and both Engineer-in-Chief, John Whitton , and Chief Commissioner for Railways, B.

Martindale, recognised the urgency of a city rail extension. In John Young , a prominent Sydney builder and local politician proposed a scheme to provide a circular city extension to the railway.

John Whitton designed a grand city terminus at the corner of Hunter and Castlereagh Streets two years later.

Neither of these schemes eventuated. In Norman Selfe drew up a scheme for the gradual enlargement and extension of the railway to the northern end of the city and in the same year Railway Commissioner, E.

The route of the latter was virtually the same as that for , however, the new site for the terminus included half of the northern end of Hyde Park.

Although 6 hectares 16 acres of the burial ground in Devonshire Street was offered as compensation, public sentiment still opposed the loss of Hyde Park.

The Royal Commission in again considered the city railway extension because of dangerous congestion at Redfern and recommended using Hyde Park.

Then, after an investigative trip overseas, Henry Deane, Engineer-in-Chief, prepared alternative proposals for a new railway terminal for the government in The second scheme proposal called for the resumption of the Devonshire Street cemeteries, but this was cheaper and less contentious than the acquisition of Hyde Park.

It was the second scheme which was eventually adopted. When the third station was built in , it moved one block north, closer to the city.

It fronted Garden Road, which was realigned to from Eddy Avenue. During the remainder of that night, the passenger concourse was demolished and the line extended through the old station into the new station.

The Western Mail arrived at The Benevolent Asylum fronted present Railway Square. It was demolished to make way for the building of the third railway terminal, Sydney Terminal.

From the building of the first railway terminus at Devonshire Street in , it was an important focus for the arrival of country persons to the city and later commuters into the city.

The importance of the relationship between the Sydney Terminus and Railway Square is reflected in the elevations of the main building.

Before the spread of the suburbs, a workman could make a return trip home to eat dinner in his lunch hour. When the third station was located one block further north, it linked up with the southern side of Belmore Park.

The park then fortuitously provided a green foil to the commanding city front of the station. The Royal Commission for the Improvement of the City of Sydney and its Suburbs offered two schemes which, in providing vehicular access, attempted to resolve the discrepancy in scale between Belmore Park and the station building.

The scheme presented by John Sulman consisted of two circular roadways, one above the other, around Belmore Park. The Commissioners, however, favoured a less grandiose Scheme prepared by Normal Selfe.

Although neither scheme was attempted, Selfe proposal is recalled in the Elizabeth Street ramp which was built in to allow the extension of an electric connection to the city.

The park, needless to say, was never raised to the height of the assembly platform. The Elizabeth Street facade of the Sydney Terminus has received less attention.

Facing the working class terraces in Surry Hills , the eastern wing was finished in brick rather than stone when shortage of funds hurried completion of the first stage of the station in It was the obvious location for expansion when new platforms were added to the original complex to provide the electrical city and suburban connection in The grand station building is eclipsed from view at street level by the Elizabeth Street ramp and the later semi-circular classical entrance portico to the city connection is in refined contrast to the rusticated blocks and heavy treatment of the main building.

A riot, dubbed the Battle of Central Station , took place in Soldiers rebelling against camp conditions had raided hotels in Liverpool and travelled to the city by commandeered trains.

Upon arrival at Central station, the rioters set about destroying the station facilities, and fire was exchanged between rampaging rioters and military police.

One rioter was shot dead and several were injured. The only remaining evidence of the gun battle is a small bullet-hole in the marble by the entrance to platform 1.

As it was being built, it was reported that "Everything in connection with the new station appears to have been designed on a grand scale, from the great elevated approaches down to the system of handling luggage underground.

The original proposal for electrification was for the North Shore line , from Hornsby to Milsons Point , a separate line which could be electrified without impact on the remainder of the rail system.

However, due to the necessity of building the City Underground Railway and the proposal for a Sydney Harbour Bridge , not to mention the expansion of the Illawarra and Bankstown lines, the program was altered in order that the electrification could be linked with these proposed expansions.

From Well Street, Redfern eight tracks would continue as the City Railway whilst four would carry the country trains to the Sydney Terminal.

An above ground station which would include a link to allow the transfer of passengers and baggage to the Sydney Terminal. This new station was constructed on the east.

Modernisation programs were undertaken in and again in In the work a booking hall was created in the former refreshment room, now the railway bar.

Murals depicting railway scenes lined the walls and a terrazzo map of Australia was installed on the floor. In October a modernisation program at the Sydney Terminal commenced.

The objective of the work was to improve the facilities for both passenger convenience and comfort. The start of this modernisation program coincided with the th Anniversary of the NSW Railways and it was at a time when many major service advances were being made to the State Rail System.

The first Sydney passenger station, located just south of Devonshire Street, was a temporary timber and corrugated iron building, constructed rapidly in late August to early September , in time for the opening of the line to Parramatta for passenger trains.

This building was demolished in the early s and replaced by a more substantial brick station building. The first, and the second station buildings, often referred to as Redfern Station were both in the form of a shed which covered the main line.

A photograph of the exterior of the first station taken in shows vertical boarding, windows with a hood and a corrugated iron roof, with a roof vent.

Internally the stud framing and timber truss roof members were exposed. The offices and public facilities were contained in the adjacent lean-to, which faced George Street.

Only one platform and the main up-line served the passenger station. A similar platform and line layout was used for the Mortuary Station, constructed 15 years later, however, the level of detail and materials varied considerably.

The second station building was constructed on the site of the first station, the main hall spanning the up and down mainlines.

Separate platforms and facilities were provided for arriving and departing passengers. The new station building appears to have taken three years to complete, the drawings are dated , the official opening was in The second station, like the first, was constructed to allow for a future extension of the line into the city, the lines initially extending just far enough past the building to accommodate a steam locomotive.

John Whitton, the Engineer-in-Chief designed a neo-classical station building to be constructed of brick, with the decorative detail formed using polychromatic and relief work.

Almost immediately the demand for platform space during peak times resulted in additional branch lines and platforms being constructed adjacent to the passenger station.

These lines were brought in front of the station, obscuring it from view and isolating the verandah. The second Redfern station, demolished following the completion of the first stage of the main terminal building c.

In addition to the construction of the main trunk line between Sydney and Parramatta in , a branch line between Darling Harbour and the Sydney Yard, with a cutting and underpass to carry the line under George Street, was also constructed.

This line was to allow for the transfer of goods to be exported by ship primarily wool bales. In the first decades of settlement goods were loaded and unloaded in Sydney Cove , however, as the city expanded the wharves extended round into Cockle Bay Darling Harbour.

The presence of the rail link would have influenced the development of this harbour. In contrast to later structures sandstone is used to line the walls of the underpass and to form the over bridge.

The Darling Harbour Line partially followed the line of an existing water course, the Blackwattle Creek. Subsequent alterations to the layout of Railway Square have resulted in extensions to the overbridge.

The first Sydney railway workshop, constructed c. A boiler, for the production of steam, was located at the southern end of the building.

By , a timber extension had been constructed over a section of track to allow the locomotives to be worked on under cover. A blacksmiths forge was located in an adjacent single storey building.

In contrast with the first Redfern Station building [Sydney Terminal] the main workshop building was an elaborately detailed sandstone building, with a rock faced ashlar base, quoins and sills.

The use of substantial and well detailed sandstone buildings on the site was to continue with the construction of the twin gabled goods shed, the Mortuary Station and finally the present station building and its approaches.

Originally the Sydney yard occupied the area between the passenger station and the two storey workshop building.

Initially timber and corrugated iron sheds were built however, these were soon replaced with more substantial masonry building. Gable-ended locomotive and carriage workshops were built here.

Although no architectural drawings of these buildings have been located it is assumed that metal roof trusses and cast iron internal columns were used, similar to the structural system favoured in England, and later employed at Eveleigh.

Of these sheds the most elaborate was the Second Goods Shed, built in the late s. The building was as, if not more, elaborate than many English examples.

It was unusual, even in the 19th century for this level of decorative detail to be employed on such a utilitarian structure as a goods shed, the standard of building obviously representing the level of importance of the yard.

Extensive facilities were required to keep the locomotives in good working order. In the yards included a gasworks c.

A turntable connected the now considerably extended main workshop building, one of the two blacksmiths shops and the repairing shed.

All of these structures have been demolished. Further towards the park, in the area now known as the Prince Alfred Sidings were located the carpenters shop, the second blacksmiths shop and an office.

These buildings are the only remnants of the Sydney Yard. Little physical evidence remains of the layout or the functioning of this once extensive railway yard as many of the structures were removed to allow for the construction of platforms and subsequently the city electric station.

The Mortuary Station, or the Receiving House as it was known was originally constructed for funeral parties, the mourners accompanying the coffin on the journey to the necropolis at Rookwood Cemetery.

The rail lines had not yet been constructed. The inner Sydney cemetery or New Burial Ground, also known as the Sandhills or Devonshire Street station was located in the Brickfields, a site now occupied by the main terminal building.

By the s this cemetery was overcrowded and a new location, within close proximity to a railway line, was required.

The Colonial Architect James Barnet designed both receiving houses mortuary stations in the mid s. Although both stations are Gothic Revival in style, the plan and detailing of each varies considerably.

In the Victorian Era mourning the dead was a prolonged ritual with elaborate rules concerning behaviour and dress. The train trip to Rookwood became part of this ritual.

By there were four stations within the necropolis, named Mortuary Stations , the Sydney receiving house was known as Mortuary Central.

The carvings were executed by Thomas Duckett and Henry Apperly. From the variation claim submitted by the builders it would appear that a slightly larger building, with more decoration was built than originally intended.

The form of the Mortuary Station, with the large porte-cochere clearly indicates that it is not a church. A colonnade of trefoil arches and foliated capitals forms a screen to the platform.

The same arch form being employed for both ends of the platform and for the octagonal porte-cochere to the west.

The station building is above street level, a flight of stairs lead to the platform level. Ramps to the north and south were used for carriages.

Internally were the ticket office, two vestibules and retiring rooms. Photographs taken in the early s clearly show the decorative detail of the building.

Two colours of stone were employed, a darker shade of the arches and the surrounds to the medallions, the lighter shade being reserved for the ashlar work.

The two shades of stone were employed internally in the same manner. The arcade covering the platform is very elaborate, with its curved queen post truss roof, with ripple iron above following the curve, blind arcading to the west that mirrors the eastern arcade, and geometric tiled floor.

Even the platform benches follow the Gothic Revival theme of the design, resembling pews. This platform would have contrasted with the more utilitarian Redfern station building, designed by John Whitton and constructed in the early s.

The stonework of the Mortuary Station was very delicately worked, with a number of different foliage motifs forming the capitals, the trefoil spandrel panel within the main arches and the medallions.

A star and zia-zag motif was used on the soffit of the arch, ball flowers on the cornice brackets and a zig-zag on the cornice.

The original roof covering was slate, with a pattern of half round and diamond slates being employed at the ridge and above the eaves. The octagonal porte-cochere terminates in a bell-cote, whose detail is a miniature of the main trefoil arch and medallion motif.

The bellcote was roofed with lead. Decorative metalwork is also employed, as finals, as a cresting and as balustrades. A leaf motif was used for the balustrade to the porte-cochere, and repeated in the panels of the elaborate timber gates that lead to the platform.

A palisade fence that stepped down to follow the slope and matching gates separated the station from the street and a picket fence lined the ramps.

The arcade detail, of Mortuary Central with its pointed trefoil arches, medallions and foliated capitals is reminiscent of the hotel at St Pancras Station by Sir George Gilbert Scott , designed in and constructed There are few other station buildings, either in Australia or the United Kingdom with this level of decorative detail.

The construction of special mortuary stations is rare, no other examples have been located. By the late s the station had deteriorated, slates were missing from the roof and the stonework, black from pollution was also covered form graffiti.

A restoration program was undertaken in The Railway Institute on Chalmers Street was constructed as a venue for the railway employees, providing a setting for both educational activities and social functions.

It is reputed to be the first Railway Institute in Australia and provided a range of services for railway employees such as evening classes and a library.

A competition was held for the design, which was won by the Architect Henry Robinson. The design was the first use of Marseille roof tiles for public buildings in Australia.

Many public buildings were designed by competition c. The practice was abandoned in the mid s due to lack of partially of the judges. When the Railway Institute was constructed in , the building was located on the corner of Devonshire Street and Elizabeth Street, at the north eastern corner of the Sydney rail yard.

The surrounding streets and the carriage way have subsequently been modified. A carriage-way lead to the porte-cochere, enabling people attending social functions to enter the building without getting wet.

In addition to the library there were two halls, a large hall, with a stage, and a smaller hall on the ground floor.

The detail of this space is largely intact and there are few examples of small scale halls of this period remaining in Sydney.

A single storey addition to the building, designed by the Government Architect Walter Liberty Vernon was added in to the south east of the main building.

Classes, such as engineering drafting, and examinations for railway employees were held in the Institute. The building was also utilised during emergencies such as the Influenza epidemic when women volunteers manufactured face masks for railway employees.

There are few examples of Institutes of this period that provided such a high level of facilities for the benefit of the employees.

In the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works advised that a Royal Commission should be constituted to "inquire into the question of bringing the railway from its present terminus at Redfern into the city".

The findings of this Commission, favouring a site in St James Road, were released in The term Central Station was now in common use.

The public Works Annual report of noted that "the Railway Construction Branch was called upon to furnish voluminous plans and estimates of the cost of the various proposals brought before the commission.

After a most exhaustive investigation, the Royal Commission reported, almost unanimously, in favour of the extension of the railway into the city by the route and according to the plan as described as the St James Road Scheme".

Mr Deane is reputed to have prepared ten schemes for the Royal Commission. Although the St James location was preferred, a scheme that did not involve the disturbance of or use of land in Hyde Park was sought.

The extension of Belmore Park was initially proposed in the scheme as compensation for the use of the north western corner of Hyde Park as a Railway Station.

Following a change of government the St James scheme was abandoned and Henry Deane prepared, c. The earlier schemes to extend the lines further into the city would have been prohibitively expensive and would have required large scale resumptions.

The site of the Old Burial ground was, in comparison, relatively easily obtainable as no private land was involved.

Due to the extent of the resumption there would, in addition to a terminus be room for the extension of the goods yard and the erection of a carriage shed and post office.

The existing lines were at a higher level than the Burial Ground so rather than lower the existing railway track the tramlines were to be raised to serve a high level station.

The Public Works Committee passed the design on 7 June however, a much modified building was actually constructed. Almost immediately these estimate proved conservative, there was much public concern regarding the removal of bodies from the Old Burial ground and a new cemetery, the Botany Cemetery, had to be constructed, at public expense at La Perouse.

The committee also considered a suitable design for the new Flinders Street Station in Melbourne. The design for the Sydney Terminus was to be a collaboration between the architect and the railway engineers.

The layout was largely determined by the planning requirements of the railway engineers, to which an appropriate architectural style was overlaid.

However, the initial scheme did not contain the require accommodation and an enlargement of the building was approved by the Minister. The Board were to fulfil the wishes of the Minister that "the building should be a monumental work of stateliness and beauty".

An early proposal for the new terminus, and the changes to the surrounding area were reported in the Sydney Mail in The width will secured by taking in land on the right already resumed or in Government hands, and including the Benevolent Asylum grounds, the convent along the northern side of Pitt Street where it debouches upon George Street.

The result will be a fine, broad thoroughfare, tree bordered to form the entrance to the city He considers that this opportunity for the improvement and ornamentation of Sydney should not be lost, especially as it will not entail a very heavy cost upon the tax payer, most of the land utilised already being the property of the crown.

There will be four double and four single platforms, or practically twelve single platforms in all Between the end of the docks and the main buildings is the assembly platform, 70ft wide.

On the platform level will be booking offices, waiting rooms, cloak and luggage offices, lavatories, convenient refreshment rooms, dining rooms, etc.

The basement will be devoted to kitchens, stores, baggage rooms, offices for minor officials, and a dining room for the Railway Commissioners and their staffs, including the clerical, professional, traffic and audit branches.

The railway is to cross Devonshire Street, which as a street for heavy traffic will cease to exist. It will be lowered and modified, to suite pedestrian, cab and light traffic only, with a width of 50ft.

The heavy traffic hitherto taken over Devonshire Street will be diverted along Belmore Road and a new street which is to be made on the east side of the station.

Cabs will enter the station from Devonshire Street. The exit for cabs will lead into Pitt Street by an inclined ramp and subway, thus avoiding any crossing on the level of the path of either pedestrians or tramcars.

The main approach to the station will be opposite the intersection of George and Pitt Street, and foot passengers, and cabs and other vehicles will enter here.

Departure for vehicles will be effected by means of a ramp, descending from the north west corner of the building to Belmore Road. A subway for pedestrians to enter the building is to be provided from a point in Pitt Street, nearly opposite the north western corner of the building.

The tramway approaches have been so designed as to take them completely clear of all other classes of traffic and congestion, and interference and risk of injury will be altogether obviated.

It is intended that the railway traffic should run as now arranged over the Castlereagh and Pitt Street route, but, instead of approaching the station on the ground level, the two lines begin to rise from a point in Belmore Park on a grade of 1 in 20, where they will terminate with a wide colonnade of sic platform level.

This design, with pavilions and a Mansard roof was strongly influenced by French Renaissance chateaux. The scale of the building, arrangement of the approaches and viaducts, the ground level colonnade and the position of the clocktower are all similar to the subsequent scheme, which was actually constructed.

The work of clearing and levelling is now well in hand. The earlier brick and sandstone design, with a mansard roof was abandoned in favour of an all sandstone terminus building which largely incorporated the same passenger, tram and vehicle separation as the earlier scheme.

During a Parliamentary Standing Committee had debated whether the major public buildings should constructed of brick with a sandstone trim or all sandstone.

This committee determined that, for major public buildings, sandstone should be used. Two designs, by members of the Government Architects Branch, were submitted for the facades in October to the Minister for Public Works and to the Railway Commissioners with the accompanying comment by the "Board of Experts" advising on the design of Central Station "we are of the opinion that either one or the other of the architectural designs which accompany this report may with confidence be adopted".

Of the two facade options that of Gorrie McLeish Blair was reputedly selected. All the old buildings and human remains have been removed from the site and the foundation stone was laid at the corner of Pitt-street and the New Belmore road on the 30th April.

The information of New-Street, 2 chains in width, the extension of Castlereagh-street and the widening of Hay and Elizabeth Streets is well forward.

The levelling of the whole site is practically finished, and great improvements have been made to Belmore and Prince Alfred Parks by filling in with the spoil excavated for the foundations".

A more detailed account is given of the excavation "the excavation to the docks and main building containing some 80, cubic yards, has been taken out and the material removed to Belmore Park, where it forms the tramway embankments and raises the general level of the park.

About 30, cubic yards of material from the Castlereagh-street cutting have been utilised in improving the level of Prince Alfred Park.

In early the design of the terminus building was changed yet again, at the request of the "Board of Experts" advising on the design of Central. A tower also of fine proportions has been included.

The completed building consequently shows a much larger building than originally proposed, but it is thought in the future it will come into use.

Henry Deane, in a lecture given to the Sydney University Engineering Society in describes the layout of the Central Railway Station that was currently under construction: This street will be continued to George Street and made ft wide.

Steps are being taken to widen Pitt Street and make it ft wide. Hay Street and Elizabeth Street, where skirting the park, have been widened by the abolition of the pathway running alongside the park and the utilisation of the avenue in the park for the purpose.

A new street, ft wide on the East side of the station ground connects Elizabeth Street at the junction of Foveaux and Castlereagh Street , Redfern.

An inclined approach, including a width of forth feet for cabs, twenty feet for pedestrians and a sufficient width for the tramway runs parallel to Pitt Street, between Hay Street and the Station.

The return tramway descent These inclined approaches will have flat earthware slopes towards the park which will be ornamentally planted. At the southern end of the station, Devonshire Street, where it passes through traffic or skirts the railway property, will be closed to all but pedestrian traffic, the latter being accommodated by a subway.

With regards to the Tramways, the Castlereagh and Pitt Street lines will be brought up by inclines to the platform level of the station The tramway running through Belmore Park has now been abolished and deviated via Elizabeth Street and the road in front of the station From the north or City end, access to the station for pedestrians will be by a footpath twenty feet wide, starting from Hay Street and rising up with a one in sixteen grade to the colonnade in front of the main building.

From the west access will be obtained by a passenger subway fifteen feet wide opposite the new street, between George and Pitt Streets, with a one in twelve grade to platform level.

A striking peculiarity and advantage in the arrangements of this station is that there are separate approaches for pedestrians, road traffic and tramways, so that there will be none of the clashing and danger incident on the present arrangement between George Street and the existing station.

The general design of the new station was also discussed: The tower, which will be situated near the north west corner of the station will be a commanding feature, and will be provided with a clock which will be visible from most parts of the city.

It is expected that the whole will produce an imposing architectural effect. The space enclosed between the wings of the building, and which is covered by the main roof, includes the assembly platform, 72 ft wide, five docks with three roads each and intervening platforms.

Outside the building, on the east side, some lines will be laid which can eventually be extended into the city should that work be authorised by Parliament.

It is intended that the accommodation for the public shall be specially commodious. It will be of a character that will not only be suitable and sufficient for many years to come, but it has been architecturally designed so as to be an object of admiration to visitors.

A special feature of the Central Station design is its assembly platform or one might say assembly platforms because for the passengers leaving by train there is wide covered space to the north of the building, which to a certain extent serves the same purpose as the larger one, situated between the two wings of the building.

This latter is ft long and 72 ft wide. Although it has an analogue in space in front of the station at Redfern Devonshire St where arrivals from Sydney congregate, it differs in important respects from that one.

Although a busy place, it will not be subject in the same way to the rush of arrivals and departures, and those using it will not only be better protected from the weather, from the hot and cold blasts and the damp that afflict the passengers at Redfern Devonshire St , but they will have better opportunities for considering their whereabouts and looking up the traffic directions than they now enjoy.

Before them, in one line will be the barriers with openings leading on to the different platforms, and indicators plainly marked which can be read from a distance will show them the times and destinations of each departing train.

The booking hall will, in accordance with modern practice be of a large size, namely ft long by 54 ft broad by 36 ft high. It is intended that it shall be a work of art and probably some special display of the latest style in station adornment will be found.

Waiting rooms will be provided for both ladies and gentlemen and the best attention will be devoted towards giving those using them the latest and best designed lavatories and conveniences.

The refreshment buffet is nearly 60 ft long by a width of 41 ft, and will be got up in the latest style. The public telegraph and telephone offices Two large lifts are provided in which the baggage is taken to the basement to be distributed through the subways and up the lifts to the various platforms.

On the other side of the arched opening to the platform is the cloak room Lifts are provided for the reception and delivery of goods to large stores in the basement.

At the southern end of the west wing of the main building is situated the main parcels office Here special facilities will be provided for parcels inwards and outwards; there is a separate road 40 ft wide, for inward and outward traffic, with all the necessary raised platforms, etc.

Under the cab approach and departure roads, and facing Pitt Street, there will be 24 shops with colonnade in front There will also be nine similar shops in the basement of the main building facing the new street.

On the upper floors of the building the Railway Commissioners and their officers will be accommodated. For the convenience and comfort will be accommodated.

For the convenience and comfort of the staff, who are thus situated some distance from the centre of the town, a special dining-room and reading-room have been provided on the street level with access by lift and staircase from the offices above".

In his lecture Henry Deane also discusses many of the technical aspects of the design including luggage handling, the lifts, the water towers, the train shed roof, which was subsequently deleted as a cost cutting measure, the platforms and signalling.

A novel method of luggage handling was designed for Central to "get rid of the objectionable luggage-trolley, which is always frightening nervous people".

A overhead luggage carrying system had been developed in England however, in the case of Central station "the levels permit of its being carried on underground by means of subways and lifts at suitable points".

The mail was also to be transferred by subway. Three pin trusses were to be employed, which where to be brought to the ground to provide intermediate support.

The roof was to be continuous. This truss and roof configuration was to be based on that of the Union Station, St Loius , visited by Deane in Such a roof would have rivalled those of the major metropolitan termini in Europe and America.

The platform area was to be double that of the earlier station and correspondingly double the number of passengers could be accommodated.

The maximum number of passengers that the Devonshire Street station could accommodate with 20, The new station would be able to accommodate 40, The location of the cab rank was also discussed, it having been decided not to incorporated a cab rank inside the building so that the new station could be "kept entirely free from the smell, which the standing of horses under the roof must certainly involve".

The necessary tramway deviations, 2 miles and 60 chains of track, were laid in using day labour. The track consisted of rails laid on sleepers.

The curve and the poles were manufactured by local engineering firms including the Clyde Engineering Co. The Permanent Way i. The construction of the first stage of the station began in June and was completed in August By 30 June the following works had been completed: This has been used to level up the station site as required.

Belmore Park has been raised to carry the tramways to the station The Sports Grounds Moore Park cycling ground have been been formed and the best of the clay had been disposed of to Messrs.

The whole of the foundations to the main buildings have been taken out and concreted. On the 6th of August Inspector Murray went to Pyrmont Quarry to arrange for starting work dressing stone.

On the 7th August eleven masons started work, and on the 18th the first dressed stone was landed on the works from Pyrmont Quarry and was set in place on No.

This stone has been used in the building of retaining wall, Pitt-street, between Hay-street and the Ambulance Depot, near Devonshire-street; the tramway arrival and departure bridges, the piers of which have been carried up to impost and girder-bed level.

Shop fronts and arcades in Pitt-street Central Railway Station has buildings concentrated on its northern boundaries that are fed by large rail yards behind.

Together they form part of the fabric of the city of Sydney and form boundaries to its inner suburbs. The location of this station is on land that has been in continuous government use since the commencement of European settlement.

Various forms of public transport have radiated from this site since The open space of the rail yards adds to the experience of arrival to the city from the north and south by opening up vistas to the imposing Sydney Terminal with its landmark tower.

This open space permits the imposing Terminus and its Tower to be visible when viewed from a distance much as it was intended when originally built.

The terminus and its approaches define formal urban spaces in the city fabric. Devonshire Street Tunnel demonstrates the influence of the city on the complex.

This tunnel was created on a pre-existing street to facilitate cross town pedestrian traffic as well as for the benefit of rail passengers.

The track layout of this yard has remained virtually unchanged since The rail sidings that take up the bulk of the land area were known as the Botany Road Yards.

These siding lines are still in service but are seldom used. The lines were used as storage yards for making up passenger trains and for goods being loaded and unloaded at the Parcel and Goods Sidings.

This was a major activity at the Sydney Terminal that has become obsolete due to the introduction of technological changes such as fixed sets of rail cars, and the phasing out of locomotive pulled trains, the use of a branch line cuts through the precinct providing access to Darling Harbour Goods Yard.

The underpass and overbridge date from The Mortuary Station with its siding and platform are on the boundary of Regent Street and are visible from Railway Square because of the low scale of buildings in the Western Yard.

Rail access to the Mortuary Station was from the main lines near the Cleveland Street Bridge, and has remained in service since the mid s.

Nearer to the present main station building there is the West Carriage Shed that is the last remaining carriage shed at Central Station.

While no longer in use, it remains largely intact. The six rail lines that enter the shed were connected to the yard through tunnels at the end of Platform No.

The Parcel Dock is physically connected with the main station complex and has four platforms. The use of rail transportation for parcel delivery has declined considerably.

These platform sidings are still in use for temporary portable offices mounted on rail flat cars. The sidings closest to Platform No.

The Yard was designed for locomotive hauled trains. As this technology has gone out of use except for the Indian Pacific and Special Trains the yard has little present functional use.

With locomotive hauled trains the train was marshalled for running in one direction, it has the locomotive at the head of the train and a brake van near the rear.

This meant that trains when ending their journey had to be remarshalled before commencing their journey out of Sydney Station. The introduction of trains with driving positions at both ends of the train no longer require this process.

As the station originally handled locomotive hauled passenger trains for suburban, country and interstate service this activity was considerable.

Most of the steam loco facilities and trackwork has been removed. The decline in shunting and the removal of coal and water storage has seen a reduction in the level of activity in the yard.

Although it has progressed through various configurations, the landscape has maintained the same ground level since with its final layout being enlarged in by the removal of some houses and the realignment of Regent Street to its present format.

The PA electric car sidings were built only after the flyovers. Prior to the construction of the electric lines the yard was a goods yard containing Produce and Goods Sheds as well as the first carriage shed.

All have been removed from this precinct. The Yard is a small part of the original Sydney yard, of which a number of buildings remain which date from Later additional buildings are associated with the Electric Suburban System.

The construction of the electric system reduced the width of the Prince Alfred Sidings. Trains within this yard need to be protected because of vandalism.

The Electric Sub Station is part of the electrification works and is linked with the sub station at the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

It also contains air compressors for the operation of pneumatic points within the Yard and the City Circle Lines.

A retaining wall forms the boundary with Prince Alfred Park, the retaining wall has been incorporated into the rear wall of the blacksmiths workshops.

A number of mature trees are growing on the boundary, the larges being a Moreton Bay Fig at least 80 years old.

Sydney Terminal is a high level, main line rail terminal. It is sited to dominate its surroundings and to mark the importance of the railways and its service to the state and the city.

This elevated siting also permits the use of the topography to gain road access to more than one level enabling the development of an extensive subterranean luggage network and separation of differing modes of transport.

The commanding position of the Terminus with large areas of open space sloping away from the building continues the public domain of Railway Square whilst maintaining a clear vista of the Terminus from the square.

The terminus comprises a colonnade and porte cochere, which originally provided an undercover area for passengers transferring to and from trams.

The Main Assembly platform is the centre of the terminus, around which all of the ancillary functions, such as refreshment rooms, waiting rooms and the booking hall were arranged.

This "platform" was accessed from both the East and West deck. Sydney Terminal now contains seven double platforms and one single platform, each with an awning , servicing a total of 15 tracks.

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